Blog 7 30th Century: Escape What is space? Can space travel faster than light?  

Figure 1.0 Pie charts of the composition of the universe at different times.

Figure 1.0 Pie charts of the composition of the universe at different times.

I am trying to discuss some of the theories used in the award-winning novel 30th Century: Escape. Book Publicists of Southern California awarded this sci-fi novel the Best Science Fiction Book of 2017. To examine the science in the book, please bear with me through some details.

Quantum Mechanics is a branch of physics and chemistry that explains the life of the fundamental particles, atoms and molecules but not biological life. These smaller building blocks comprise us, the sun, the moon, the planets and our observable universe.  The observable universe is estimated to be about 4.6 percent of the total as shown  in Figure 1.

Some scientists agree that our universe originated 13.7 years ago with the big bang.  The lower chart above in Figure 1.0 estimates what this universe looked like as atoms started to form about 380,000 years after the big bang.

Scientists continue to research how gravity (from Einstein’s theory of relativity 1916) and quantum mechanics (founded by Schrodinger and Dirac in the 1920s) can be combined. Quantum mechanics is responsible for the laws of small things like atoms, electrons and photons.  This quantum physics has led to lasers, modern electronics (for example cell phones) and the standard model that predicted the Higgs Boson.

The evidence for quantum mechanics theory being fact is overwhelming.  Gravity is detected as weak interaction on the very small things like atoms, which is in the realm of quantum mechanics. How does Einstein theory of relativity effect the evolution of our universe, which deals with larger things like planets, black holes and galaxies as well as everything else?  To determine this result, we must find the theory of everything such as string, M, super string, or another theory that can predict something we can test.  Einstein’s theory of relativity predicted gravity waves, but it took humanity about 100 years to finally detect them.

That answer to the evolution of the universe is thought to depend on combining the quantum theory with relativity. One major problem is that Einstein’s equations go to infinity, which is not realistic for black holes to become infinitely small because quantum mechanistic tells us that nothing can be smaller than a Planck’s length about 1.6 x 10-35 meters.  Energy also has certain limited energy states, and nothing can change that fact; not event white holes, black holes and/or wormholes. Wormholes theoretically connect two separate regions within the universe; however, they may even connect two different universes. Some scientists have suggested that if one mouth of a wormhole is moved in a specific way, it will provide a method to travel through time. Other scientists have proposed time travel is possible by other means such as warping spacetime.  There is nothing in physics that prevents time travel other than technology advancements that need to take place, which means someday in the distant future; in my mind, it could happen in the 30th century. In the future, we may have visitors studying our history, but will they tell us they are from, the future, not likely.

“You can go into the future or into the past using traversable wormholes,” astrophysicist Eric Davis told LiveScience.  “It won’t be simple: It would take a Herculean effort to turn a wormhole into a time machine.”

Adding exotic matter to a wormhole might stabilize it to the point that human passengers could travel through it without risk of death. There is no guaranty that addition of “regular” matter like human space vessels will not destabilize the wormhole.

Today’s technology is insufficient to enlarge or stabilize wormholes, even if they could be found. However, scientists continue to explore the concept as a method of space travel with the hope that technology will eventually be able to utilize them.

We may require some many hundreds of years and perhaps thousands of years before we can detect wormholes, but I would forecast no later than the 56th century these technologies will be available for time travel.

 Figure 2.0 A artist picture of a wormhole with a space ship about to enter. (Express UK, June 21, 2017)

Figure 2.0 A artist picture of a wormhole with a space ship about to enter. (Express UK, June 21, 2017)

Gravity is not a real force, according to Einstein it is caused by the warping of space-time or the fabric of space, for example by a mass or many masses. Many of us think space is the absence of matter or simply it does not exist: yes, space-time is a fabric that creates virtual particles, gravity, gravity waves and much more. Let’s find out more about space. Could space be made by black holes? Can matter and energy be related by some equation to space? Can this cause the current acceleration in the expansion of this universe?

Lots of space was most likely made in the big bang.  What caused the big bang? In current cosmology there several theories.  The conventional big bang and most accepted string theory does not know or predict anything that can be tested before the big bang.  In J-theory of the cosmos it was caused by a monster size Black Hole that was extremely large made up of perhaps hundreds or even thousands of supermassive black holes.  When the black hole reached a critical size, it forms a white hole or a big bang.  This is an explanation for the start and cycles of this universe and others.

The conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC) is a view of cosmology compatible with general relativity and a cyclic universe with no start time and no end. This CCC theory was proposed by Roger Penrose and Vahe Gurzadyan. In CCC, the universe iterates through infinite cycles, with the future time-like infinity of each previous iteration being identified with the big bang singularity of the next. This theory was explained in detail by Roger Penrose in his book Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe published 2010. This is not the only cyclic theory of the universe.

In Roger Penrose CCC theory of cosmology, the universe is cyclic and thus philosophically compatible to J-theory.  In 30th Century: Escape J-theory is used. This universe will end with all black holes in a time many trillions of years in the future.  In the end the universe may stop expanding, as gravitationally bound black holes from the former bound galaxies start to merger until they reach a critical size. Then they become a white hole or another big bang type event. Then everything starts over within that white hole.

Inflation theory after our big bang tells us that the universe expanded faster than the speed of light, which may be possible as Einstein like Isaac Newton has some problems with theory and reality.  Quantum theory tells us there are limits to size and things like electrons and atoms have only certain distinct energy levels.  Black holes may also be limited in size and energy levels. It strongly suggests the energy = mass times the speed of light squared or e = mc2 = some function (times) space-time.  In fact, to find that function, one can use the speed of our expansion to estimate an equation as Jennifer, my heroine does in the sci-fi novel, see Chapter 20 of 30th Century: Escape published on Amazon June 15, 2017.  If space can travel faster than the speed of light, maybe be, it can escape the black hole.

This may mean that black holes make space for example the big bang made space that is still expanding or maybe something else is making space. Now most all initial large stars are making black holes very rapidly now.  Therefore, it is very likely that these black holes also make space, but they do not expand as fast as the supersize black holes.  We do not yet know how these super-massive black holes formed at the center of all galaxies, or how these became so large in such a short time. These super-massive black holes could be left-overs from an earlier cycle.

Black holes emit energy (such as Hawkins radiation) and maybe black holes emit other radiation and space as well.

The science in 30th Century: Escape by Mark Kingston Levin PhD is based on these assumptions and other theories by Roger Penrose and others.

Dr. Levin

Dr. Levin was born and grew up in Vermont with many winters spent in Florida as a child. As a teenager he wrote poetry, served as a lifeguard and played football. He currently enjoys sailing, exploring underwater caves, snorkeling, writing science fiction and other pursuits. After working on the Apollo and Mars projects, he returned to school to study under Nobel Laureate Paul Dirac, obtaining his PhD in 2.5 years. Dr. Levin founded two companies and served the science policy apparatus in President Ford’s administration. He has been published over 44 times in scientific literature and was awarded over 32 US patents. The science fiction writer is now emerging with his first work, a trilogy entitled 30th Century. The first award-winning book, 30th Century: Escape, is currently available on Amazon. Book two in the series, 30th Century: Revived, should be released before the end of April 2018.

2018-12-10T22:06:28+00:00 February 21st, 2018|Blog|