Blog 35 What comes after the Higgs Boson discovery? By award-winning author scientist and Mark Kingston Levin PhD
Figure 1. The European Organization of Nuclear Research (CERN) released this artist view of one of the events in the recent Higgs dataset. Credit: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN
The Higgs boson appears at the world’s largest atom smasher, alongside a top quark and an antitop quark, which are the heaviest known fundamental particles. New discoveries could help researchers and engineers understand why fundamental particles have mass. Researchers confirmed the Higgs particle’s existence back in 2013; it was a big deal for science and particularly for physicist Peter Higgs, as he was awarded a portion of the Nobel Prize in physics for his prediction. This discovery was important because it filled out the standard model of the atom as shown below:
Figure 2. How Naturopathic medicine aids in miscarriages and child loss
The Standard Model confirms physicists’ assumptions about what the fundamental particles are in our universe. The Higgs discovery did not answer every question in science. For example, what is dark matter and dark energy (95 or more percent of the total mass and energy that can be related by Einstein’s famous equation e = mc2?) As CERN, the organization that operates the LHC, explained, the mass measure answers one question but string theory is not there yet. It is still not able to predict anything that can be tested now.
What are fermions? Fermions are particles that have an odd half-integer (like 1/2, 3/2, and so forth) spin. Leptons and quarks, as well as most composite particles, such as protons and neutrons, are fermions.
Figure 3. Explains some properties of Fermions and Bosons.
CERN states, “An electron, for example, is a bit less than one three-millionth the mass of a top quark. Researchers believe that the Higgs boson, with its role in giving rise to mass in the universe, could be the key to that mystery about where is the missing mass and what is it. Two experiments — the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) and A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) — observed a decay that revealed that the Higgs ‘couples’ extremely strongly with the superheavy top quark, suggesting a close affinity between the particles.”
This new measurements “give a strong indication that the Higgs boson has a key role in the large value of the top quark’s mass. While this is certainly a key feature of the Standard Model, this is the first time it has been verified experimentally with overwhelming significance,” Karl Jakobs reported for the LHC’s ATLAS collaboration.
These new experimental results were published June 4 in the journal Physical Review Letters. What do they mean? The data is low grade signals from many experiments that were analyzed to find the following encouraging statistics. “The Higgs-top quark decay is published in the paper.” This overwhelming result preprint see server arXiv reports. The data shows a significance of 6.3 sigma that is greater than 1 chance in 500 million of being in error.
Figure 4. Peter Higgs at the Nobel Prize event.
Mark Kingston Levin PhD award-winning author and scientist
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Dr. Levin was born and grew up in Vermont with many winters spent in Florida as a child. As a teenager he wrote poetry, served as a lifeguard and played football. He currently enjoys sailing, exploring underwater caves, snorkeling, writing science fiction and other pursuits. After working on the Apollo and Mars projects, he returned to school to study under Nobel Laureate Paul Dirac, obtaining his PhD in 2.5 years. Dr. Levin founded two companies and served the science policy apparatus in President Ford’s administration. He has been published over 44 times in scientific literature and was awarded over 32 US patents. The science fiction writer is now emerging with his first work, a trilogy entitled 30th Century. The first award-winning book, 30th Century: Escape, is currently available on Amazon. Book two in the series, 30th Century: Revived, was released April 29, 2018. It is now available on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and other retailers.