Blog 27 Hawaii was the place for astronomers, but now with Hubble what does Hawaii offer?
There are 13 observatories on Mauna Kea but the first big 3 were installed in 1979. Even before that Governor Burns had a road installed so that the famous astronomer, Gerard Kuiper could set up a small telescope a few years earlier. Today some of Hawaii telescopes are 60 times bigger than Hubble.
Figure 1. The Japanese Telescope is located atop Mauna Kea the northern mountain or bump on the eastern and southern most island called the Big Island or the island of Hawaii. Credit Wikipedia
Figure 2. This map shows Mauna Kea and the major cities and features.
Figure 3. The Subaru observatory, on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea is located on your extreme left and looks different that the other typical dome types. Credit: Subaru/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
The history of this and other amazing machines on Mauna Kea started many years before it was made an official project by the government in Tokyo. The University of Tokyo formed an engineering working group to develop and study the concept of a 7.5-meter (300 in) telescope in 1984. The astronomy committee of Japan’s council gave top priority to the development of a “Japan National Large Telescope” (JNLT), and in 1986, the University of Tokyo signed an agreement with the University of Hawaii to build the telescope in Hawaii. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan was formed in 1988 through a reorganization of the University’s Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, to oversee the JNLT and other large national astronomy projects.Subaru Telescope shown at the extreme left is a modern reflecting telescope. Instruments can be mounted at a focus below the primary mirror. This telescope is special for its deep and wide field survey arrangement rare on large telescopes. It took almost 8 years to build it from 1991 to 1998.
A Several state-of-the-art technologies are used to reduce atmospheric and other distortions. For example, over 260 computer-controlled actuators press the main mirror from underneath, which corrects for primary mirror distortion, which may be created due to the telescopes orientation.
The Japanese astronomers peered back 11 to 13 billion years ago to study the early phase of the Big Bang. The discovered what our universe was like only 7 percent to 20 percent of its current age.
In addition, some American have used the Japanese Telescope located in the Island of Hawaii as a part of the exchange program. For example, David Sobral, an astronomer at Lancaster University, headed the team of mostly American scientists in their work charting out the primitive universe. These researchers identified early galaxies using the Subaru Telescope. They also used the Isaac Newton Telescope, which is in the Canary Islands not far from Spain.
Figure 4. The above illustration represents the distance to the galaxies in billions of light years. The location of the 4,000 galaxies studied are shown as colored balls. The colors of the balls represent the degree of redshift seen, with the blue balls indicating galaxies nearer to the Earth. The green and other color such as yellow, orange and red balls represent successively larger redshifts, and galaxies that are progressively further away. Credit: D. Sobral
David Sobral, is the team leader for this project. He found distant galaxies emitting Lyman-alpha radiation, an ultraviolet frequency caused by very young galaxies with many forming stars. Dr Sobral used some 16 filters including narrow- and medium-band. The team of researchers studied the ancient galaxies in the constellation Sextans and the area is now referred to as the COSMOS field.
Our galaxy the Milky Way was once a similar galaxy, so we can learn how our galaxy may have evolved. The researchers found young galaxy much more compressed as expected and with many newly formed stars that were hot and blue in color as opposed to our yellow sun.
Figure 5. Some of the great telescopes starting in about 1967 to present. Credit Wikipedia
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-04-astrophysicists-infant-universe-d-early.html#jCp Credit: David Sobral
“Some of these galaxies should have evolved to become like our own, and thus we are seeing what our galaxy may have looked like 11 to 13 billion years ago,” researcher Ana Paulino-Afonso, a Ph.D. student in Lancaster and Lisbon, Portugal and co-author on the study, said in the statement.
“The bulk of the distant galaxies we found are only about 3,000 light-years across in size, while our Milky Way is about 30 times larger,” Paulino-Afonso added. “Their compactness likely explains many of their exciting physical properties that were common in the early universe.”
Figure 6. A type of collage art showing the intense distortion of space by a black hole. Credit: Cassini-science-br
Some scientists explain Einstein’s view of space-time as a flexible fabric stretched with grid lines. If one brings in a massive black hole, it sinks in creating a type of distortion that can slowdown time and even stop it. The more massive the black hole the bigger the effect can be on time because space has been distorted into a conical well shape as shown above.
The deeper the well you make in space, the more space distorts and curves. And the deepest of wells are made by black holes. Black holes create such a deep well in space that nothing has enough energy to climb back out, not even light.
Figure 7. Black holes can generate energy much more efficient than our Sun. Note that fusion is 0.7 percent efficient while black-hole can be 10 percent efficient, using Einstein’s equation e- mc2.
The way this works is we need a disk of material that orbits around a black hole. The matter is accelerated to near the speed of light as it swills in orbit closer and closed to the event horizon or the point where it will not be able to escape. I hate to contradict Einstein but light and matter can escape in what we now call a burb. These jets can destroy life on any planet within about 900 light years. Also, Einstein said the hole was perfectly black, but it does emit Hawking’s radiation and it eventually dies like every else, but the life of black holes is many trillions of years. In my humble opinion when a black hole reaches a certain size with the mass close to our universe’s mass then we will experience a white hole. What is a white hole? It is a big bang and a new universe starting all over again.
In the 30th Century: Escape the award-winning novel Professor at University of Sydney in about 2939 he proposes a BLACK-HOLE POWERED STAR-SHIP USING SMALL BACK-HOLE THE SIZE OF A SUPERTANKER IN MASS.
Figure 8. Carl Schwarzschild was the first to use Einstein’s theory of general relativity to predict the point of no return for a black hole. Credit: Public Domain
Who predicted black holes? No, not Einstein. Karl Schwarzschild was the first person to use Einstein’s revolutionary equations and predicted black holes. Einstein did not like black holes because things went to infinity, which today we know as impossible. Quantum Mechanics tell us that nothing can be smaller than a Plank length. We need to combine relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The first to try was Paul Dirac. Please note he was on my PhD committee. He became a friend and collaborator in later life.